Pharaoh Sneferu
The Pyramids Take Shape

Pharaoh Sneferu (Snofru or Snefru) ruled before Cheops (2613-2589 BC). He built three large Pyramids and perhaps two smaller ones. His Pyramids total nearly 5 million cubic yards (over 3 1/2 million cubic meters) of cut and dressed stone. The principal building projects of Sneferu were located at Meidum (20 miles / 30 km south of modern Cairo) and Dahshur (12 miles / 20 km south of Cairo).

The near vertical walls of the remains of Sneferu's Pyramid at Meidum.
The Broken Pyramid of Sneferu
by Ernst Weidenbach.

The Pyramid at Meidum

Meidum was Sneferu's first attempt at Pyramid building. Some scholars believe this unusual structure was constructed as a step Pyramid and later additional material was added to transform it into a true Pyramid with flat triangular sides.

the base of the Meidum Pyramid by Weidenbach

It is difficult to be certain of the original form because the entire outer shell has collapsed. What remains is a giant, 210 feet (65 meters) tall, steep sided cube with two terraced steps near the top, surrounded by deep mounds of debris. It appears that two additional steps existed in the 15th century but have fallen since that time.

Mainstream archaeology is convinced that the Meidum pyramid was abandoned due to inadequate engineering. They cannot explain why it was left in place, the valuable stone could have been re-used for Sneferu's second or third pyramid. It is also possible that this building was deliberately destroyed for ritual reasons.

(right) Photograph from EgyptArchive.

Sneferu's Pyramids at Dahshur
The Bent Pyramid

Sneferu turned to Dahshur (Dashur or archaic Dashhoor) for his next project, the unique "Bent" Pyramid. Unlike any other known pyramid, the angle of the sides changes at approximately the midpoint from 55 to 43 degrees.
the Bent Pyramid by E.J. Andrews, 1842.Archaeologists are quick to speculate that the building was showing signs of failure necessitating a change of plans. Indeed, cracks have been found in the structure. Another possibility is that the Egyptians, always very conscious of the symbolic and hyperdimensional significance of shapes and angles, deliberately built the Pyramid to this design to create a desired effect. The Bent Pyramid is 344 feet (105 M) tall.

There is a small Pyramid south of the Bent Pyramid, and a mortuary temple near its eastern side. The original polished limestone outer casing is mostly intact, leaving this Pyramid the closest to its' intended appearance of the Pyramids of Egypt.

The Bent Pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur,
the Red Pyramid is in the distance on the right,
photograph from EgyptArchive.

by E.J. Andrews, 1842.

Unique among the large Pyramids, the Bent Pyramid has two entrances on two different sides, North (as is usual) and West, shown in the above cutaway drawings. Like nearly everything about the Pyramids this has encouraged speculation regarding its' meaning and purpose.

A sliding stone door in the Bent Pyramid by E.J. Andrews, 1842.

The Egyptians used many clever devices to prevent tomb robbers from gaining access to the inner chambers. Here is a simple sliding doorway of stone designed to be difficult to move once it is closed. The top figure shows it in the open position, the heavy stone slab out of the way to the right. Below the stone has moved to cover the opening. To the right is a side view.
From the Bent Pyramid,
Engraving by E.J. Andrews, 1842

The Red Pyramid

Perfect in form, flatter and darker than its' brothers at Giza, the Red Pyramid.
The Red Pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur,
photograph from EgyptArchive.

Sneferu's third large Pyramid, the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, located 2 1/2 miles (4 km) North of the Bent Pyramid, has flat triangular sides at a 43 degree angle, and is 340 feet (104 meters) tall. Whatever engineering problems may have existed in the building of the Meidum and Bent Pyramids were resolved and the Red Pyramid has survived the ages in excellent condition, save the pilfering of it's fine limestone casing and its' royal treasures. The local limestone used in the construction of the core has a reddish hue, giving the Pyramid it's color and name. The Red Pyramid is the third largest Pyramid of Egypt, surpassed only by those built by Sneferu's son and grandson, Cheops and Chephren.

Geologist Robert M. Schoch has examined the central chamber of the Red Pyramid and concluded that it shows considerable weathering, unlike the remainder of the interior, as if it is a much earlier structure that was enclosed by the building of the Pyramid. The idea of incorporating important fragments of earlier wall sculptures into later reliefs is well known in Egyptology and so the possibility of an ancient-at-the-time temple below the Red Pyramid has plausibility.

The interior of the Red Pyramid is simpler than the Bent Pyramid, leading some to suppose hidden chambers and perhaps Sneferu himself remain to be found.

Interior of the Red Pyramid
by E.J. Andrews, 1842.

Map of the Dahshur Pyramid field
by E.J. Andrews, 1842.

The Pharaohs of Dahshur

Sneferu Fourth Dynasty
Red Pyramid
Bent Pyramid
2613-2589 BC
Senwosret III Twelfth Dynasty 1878-1860 BC
Amenemhet II Twelfth Dynasty "White" pyramid 1929-1895 BC
Amenemhet III Twelfth Dynasty "Black" pyramid 1860-1815 BC

wings of the Sun.

The Pyramids of Sneferu:
Meidum and Dahshur

Ancient Egypt's Pyramid Builders

Home Page
Climbing the Great Pyramid
The Great Pyramid of Cheops
The Second Greatest Pyramid - Chephren
Valley Temple of Chephren
The Pyramid of Menkaure
The Great Sphinx
More About Giza
Before Giza:
The Pyramids at Saqqara
The Pyramids of Sneferu
The Greatest Mystery of All

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